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autotitrator The determination of halogens in environmental samples is routinely undertaken by WAS using a selection of ISO 17025 accredited analytical techniques. Precise determination of Fluorine levels in samples, in the form of fluoride, is carried out using an Ion sensitive electrode. Fluoride is introduced into the environment through natural processes such as weathering. Human activities also introduce fluoride into the environment. Examples of these activities include aluminium smelting, the use of fertilisers in agriculture and the manufacturing of materials for the construction industry. Fluoride is an accumulative toxin in plants and it inhibits important life processes such as photosynthesis. Iodine analysis at WAS is performed via a classical titration method. This element is found naturally in the air, water and soil. It is an essential micronutrient for many organisms and plays a vital role in metabolic processes. An excess of Iodine can cause an overactive thyroid which can create serious health issues for humans and animals. Most of the Iodine introduced into the environment occurs through natural processes. Determination of Chlorine and Bromine levels in samples is accomplished at WAS via classical titration or autotitrator techniques. Both techniques are covered by the scope of our UKAS 17025 accreditation. Chlorine is a naturally occurring substance that exists in the form of common salts e.g. magnesium chloride, sodium chloride. Widespread production of organochlorine based solvents, pesticides and disinfectants has lead to the introduction of man-made organochlorine compounds into the environment. An example of this is Polychlorinated Biphenols (PCB’s) that persist in the environment and often accumulate in the body fat of humans and animals. PCBs have been linked to disorders of the nervous system and birth defects. Bromine occurs naturally in the form of common salts e.g. magnesium bromide, sodium bromide. Bromine contamination in the environment from the production of flame proofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes and sanitisers. The ingestion of bromine can cause serious health effects in humans ranging from kidney and liver function issues, infertility and cancer. High levels of bromine in the environment is detrimental to marine life and when present in the atmosphere can reduce the amount of ozone present.

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Analytical Service Notes
• Potentiometric determination of Bromine by auto-titrator
• Micro determination of fluorine in organic materials
• Limit test for heavy metal impurities in organic samples
• Potentiometric determination of Chlorine by auto-titrator
• Oxygen flask determination of Chlorine in organic & inorganic compounds
• Analysis of Fluorine in pharmaceutical research samples
• Oxygen flask determination of Iodine in organic & In-organic compounds
• Determination of Sulphur in organic & inorganic compounds

Press Releases
• Rapid Accurate & Precise Micro Determination of Fluorine


Environmental Analysis